WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE?

Intelligence, or a person's cognitive capability, is the most common way of assessing a person's ability to comprehend and process complicated information. The IQ or Intelligence Quotient is a popular way to assess intelligence. Although humans have always been interested in measuring their ability to learn and can be traced back thousands of years, it wasn't until the early 1900s that a French psychologist named Alfred Binet devised a method to assess students' attention span, problem-solving abilities, and retention of information, which are the three major aspects of cognitive capacity. The Binet-Simon scale was devised by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon, who created a test that focused on these topics.

In today's IQ tests, a score of 89 or lower is considered below average, 90 to 109 is considered ordinary, 110 to 119 is superior intelligence, 120 to 140 is very superior intellect, and a score of 145 is considered genius.

Since the early 1900s, this approach has been used to assess people's mental capacity and learning ability. It wasn't until 1983 when Dr. Howard Gardner, an American psychologist, and a Harvard University professor, wrote his book title, Frames of Minds, in which he articulated the studies that a person can have numerous aspects of intelligence, deputing the very theory of a solitary form of intelligence. Gardner believes that a person can have up to eight different forms of intelligence at the same time.

Visual-Spatial Intelligence is a type of intelligence that allows a person to comprehend the mind.  Visual-spatial learning style, or visual-spatial intelligence, refers to a person's ability to perceive, analyze, and understand visual information in the world around them. Essentially, they can picture concepts with their mind's eye.

The ability to understand and learn languages and dialects is known as verbal-linguistic intelligence. Verbal-linguistic intelligence refers to an individual’s capability to reason, solve problems, and learn using language. People with this type of intelligence are most likely to excel in activities that involves reading comprehension and writing. They have their way of using words and can quickly device a response in verbal interactions. 

The logical-mathematical learning style is an individual’s capacity to reason, solve problems, and learn using numbers, abstract visual information, and cause-and-effect linkages. To absorb knowledge, logical-mathematical learners may use reasoning and sequencing.

Naturalistic intelligence is the ability to recognize, classify, and manipulate objects, animals, and plants in the environment. We can recognize differences between animals, groups of people, or items and grasp how they connect to one another thanks to this form of intelligence.

The ability to control items and apply a variety of physical talents is referred to as bodily kinesthetic intelligence. This intelligence also includes a sense of time as well as the mastery of abilities achieved via mind–body integration. Dancers, athletes, surgeons, and others who work with their hands and use fine-motor skills, likely have developed bodily kinesthetic intelligence.

Musical-rhythmic is the type of intelligence that enables an individual to have an distinctive talent when it comes to music. Patterns are important to those with musical intelligence. For example, in order to improve learning, they look for patterns in incoming material. Patterns in speech and language are also searched for. They recall things by making lyrics or rhymes out of them. Musically intelligent people have a high appreciation for music.

Finally, the Intra-personal and Inter-personal intelligence are two types of intelligence that are intertwined. Both are aspects of intelligence that are linked to the comprehension of emotions and sentiments. The cognitive capacity to relate to other people's emotions and feelings is known as inter-personal intelligence. Intra-personal intelligence, on the other hand, refers to one's ability to comprehend oneself

To sum it up, Gardner believes that no one is actually stupid, it is just that their intellect lies in different things. A student can excel in Math and not in English or Arts, and that is completely fine. It is a matter of assessing the children and developing their own intelligence type. However, this theory is not yet well received by many, especially since it highlights the flaws of today’s education system, wherein students are tested and taught the same way and phase, regardless of their intelligence type.

The theory of multiple intelligence challenges the very idea of what intelligence is, which is good. This way, individuals that does not fit in the typical norm can have the chance to showcase their ability and talent. As Albert Einstein once said, “Everybody is a genius. But if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live its whole life believing that it is stupid”. Einstein, himself was once labeled as intellectually challenged and was a school dropout. But it all turns out that his mind is just different and the normal school setup was not compatible for his learning type.

SOURCES:

https://www.uthsc.edu/tlc/intelligence-theory.php

https://www.verywellmind.com/history-of-intelligence-testing-2795581

https://www.howardgardner.com/

https://www.verywellmind.com/gardners-theory-of-multiple-intelligences-2795161

https://www.simplypsychology.org/multiple-intelligences.html

https://www.verywellfamily.com/verbal-linguistic-learning-style-2162785