Technological, Pedagogical, Content Knowledge
Norberto A. Villafuerte – Teacher III
Cataning Elementary School
Education in the 21st century obtains new skills and competencies, driven by the learners' needs in order to keep up with the fast-changing development of technology. Integrating technology in teaching is crucial to prepare learners in a rapid growth of modern technology. Therefore, teachers should be prepared for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) integration to create a more conducive, improved, and advanced learning environment. With this, it is important for teachers’ professional development to discover the importance of Technological, Pedagogical, Content Knowledge (TPACK). Educators must learn how to integrate technology with pedagogy and content to be more competent and effective teachers. To generate teaching content, there should be a deep understanding on the concept of technology use, pedagogical technique in constructive ways. Through the utilization of TPACK tools, students will be properly instructed and guided toward a better learning and would have a strong understanding on the subject matter.
According to the Wikipedia,The TPACK framework looks at content knowledge (CK) as the "what" that is the subject matter (arts, English, mathematics, science, etc.) teachers teach, pedagogical knowledge (PK) is the "how" that tells how the teacher will make the content more accessible (via direct instruction, inquiry, group discussion, debate, modeling, etc.). Then, technological knowledge (TK) as the "partner" answering the question of what tools (laptops, projects, smart boards, multimedia, simulations, etc.) will be selected to make the content more accessible to the students. The TPACK framework goes beyond seeing these three knowledge bases in isolation and goes further by emphasizing the kinds of knowledge that lie at the intersections between three primary forms: Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), Technological Content Knowledge (TCK), Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK), and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). Researchers argue that pedagogical use of technology and effective technology integration using pedagogies for specific subject matter requires developing sensitivity to the dynamic, transactional relationship between these components of knowledge situated in unique contexts. Individual teachers, grade-level, school-specific factors, demographics, culture, and other factors ensure that every situation is unique, and no single combination of content, technology, and pedagogy will apply to every teacher, every course, or every view of teaching. The outer dotted circle of the framework is thus renamed as the “Contextual Knowledge” (i.e., the teacher’s knowledge of the context) and define it as everything from a teacher’s awareness of available technologies, to the teacher’s knowledge of the school, district, state, or national policies they operate within. This also makes the outer circle another knowledge domain that teachers must possess to integrate technology in teaching. This, in turn, implies that contextual knowledge is something that we (as teacher educators) can act on, change, and help teachers develop. Since CK is taken (for Content Knowledge) and another CK would be confusing; therefore, the outer dotted circle is named as XK for "conteXtual Knowledge" distinguishing it from CK.