The human relations hypothesis asserts that positive leader-follower connections are necessary for organizational success. This theoretical framework suggests that effective leaders need empathy, active listening, and good communication to develop trust and a good working relationship with their subordinates. School leaders need human relations abilities to foster healthy interactions with students, teachers, parents, and community members. In organizational psychology, the human relations management hypothesis, developed in the early 1900s, states that recognizing teachers as unique individuals and creating supportive work environments can boost motivation and productivity. According to the assertion, empowerment, participation, and positive treatment increase production.

The Hawthorne Experiments revealed worker motivation elements. There are various ways to categorize these elements, but human connections suggest categorizing them by actor. According to Ward (2021), the Human Relations theory recognizes four key actors in the organizational context: individuals, employee groups, managers and supervisors, and the organization.

According to the contingency theory, a leader’s effectiveness depends on the situation and their flexibility and adaptability. This theoretical framework implies that leaders need good decision-making skills to make timely and effective decisions that affect the educational institution and its stakeholders. This study shows that school principals need decisiveness to make educated decisions that improve student achievement and resource use. Contingency theory gained popularity in academia after Fred Fiedler’s 1964 publication “A Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness”. The military was his main study emphasis. Like the contingency theory, the author believes there is no single best approach to running a school. Leadership efficacy depends on the leader’s personality and the context. Leaders must lead by example and control their group by analyzing the situation and taking action during a crisis. The contingency theory considers many dependent and independent variables and aims to create a productive workplace. Improving staff working conditions can boost a school’s output and success. The contingency leadership theory states that a leader’s effectiveness depends on style and ideal conditions. Situations and leadership styles affect a leader’s effectiveness.

On the other hand, the conflict management strategy also promotes constructive conflict resolution that yields beneficial benefits. This theoretical perspective proposes that educational leaders should have conflict management abilities, including active listening, bargaining, and problem-solving, to overcome educational problems. According to the research framework, school principals need conflict management skills to create a favorable school climate and resolve disagreements amongst students, teachers, parents, and community members. Beginning with the basic truth that people constantly want to achieve their goals promotes dispute resolution. However, sometimes outside influences prohibit people from accomplishing their goals. Probably because others are also pursuing their aims and ambitions. Conflict happens when coworkers, school heads, teachers, or factions have competing interests (Parvez, 2022).

Okumbe (2018) found that staff management is essential for thriving educational institutions. Educational administrators may utilize human relations theory to identify the human element in an organization and summarize the linkages between education philosophies. Everyone has varied requirements and talents, including teachers and students. Realizing their potential motivates them and makes them aware of the resources they can use to improve their skills. Contingency theory can also implement and modify school management methods and techniques based on teachers, students, curriculum, resources, goals, and environment. It can also address classroom uncertainty, complexity, and diversity.

Finally, school disagreements have long troubled the professional community. Education must face the same inexorable fact as other industries. Any community with long-term residents will have issues. School principals must learn how to minimize conflict’s negative effects, prevent it, find positive outcomes, preserve desired relationships, keep the workplace calm, regularly train staff to handle conflicts, and continue the school’s successful operations despite the conflicts.

Jane G. Cantiller |Teacher II| Sta. Rita Elementary School |Olongapo City
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