The Education Act of 1982 envisages an “educational community” as having reference to those persons or groups or groups of persons as such or associated in institutions involved in organized teaching learning systems. As provided in the Act, The members and elements of the educational community are: (1). Parents or guardians or the head of the institution or foster home which has custody of the pupil or student; (2). Students, or those enrolled in and who regularly attend an educational institution of secondary or higher level or a person engaged in formal study , as well as pupils, which refer to those who regularly attend a school of elementary level under the supervision and tutelage of a teacher; (3). School personnel, or all persons working for an educational institutions, including the teaching or academic staff, school administrators, academic non- teaching  personnel, and non-academic personnel; and (4). Schools or institutions recognized by the State which undertake educational operations.


The primary purpose of schools is the preservation and continuation of the society in which they exist. Schools provide a structured setting in which individuals are socialized through the learning of the roles, rules and relationships that characterize the society. Schools thus mirror the society that supports them. In the Philippines, the school system is also known as formal education and is society’s primary learning system and therefore, the main instrument for achievement of the country’s educational goals and objectives. The formal school system has three levels – elementary education, secondary education, and tertiary education.




Though the education Act of 1982, the state also recognizes its responsibility to provide, within the context of the formal education system, specialized educational services to meet the needs of certain clientele. These specialized educational services include work education or practical arts, special education, non-formal education.




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