The Action Learning Model was first introduced by Professor Reginald Revans in 1980, who was a noted physicist and the first known Industrial Management Professor.The idea behind the Action Learning Model is that a learner can gather knowledge by working with other peers in a group setting to find a solution to a problem or scenario. In doing so, learners will be able to not only develop their own skill sets and knowledge base, but also those of the group or of the organization.Reginald Revans also described the Revans Formula as L= P+Q, where:L is learning; P is programming andQ is questioning (closed, open, objective, and relative). The groups that are formed in Action Learning are known as “action learning sets”. In action learning sets, the learners are encouraged to meet on a regular basis, explore answers to the problems, and to collectively decide upon the most appropriate solution. The Action Learning Model is seen as an accelerated learning strategy which can be applied to a wide range of educational settings. Not only is it effective in the classroom, but in the workplace as well. In fact, its proponents suggest that it can me a valuable learning tool in eLearning environments which deal with adult education. Typical tasks may involve group project tasks, games, or an examination of case studies.

The Action Learning Model serves as a guide in the development of the activities created in the proposed module. The proposed module contains activities that encourage team learning or collaborative learning activities. Today’s generation of students are very sociable and that group would play a very important role in the teaching and learning processes.

Programmed Instruction was developed by B. F. Skinner. Even though he used this model in experimental settings throughout the 1920s and 1930s, it wasn't until the 1950s when him and J. G. Holland began implementing programmed instruction at Harvard. As an educational technique, it is characterized by self-paced, self-administered instruction, which is presented in a logical sequence and with multiple content repetitions. Skinner argues that learning can be accomplished if the content is divided into small, incremental steps, and if learners get immediate feedback, reinforcement and reward. The design of programmed instruction usually involves the following steps: Specify a goal, which means decide on what needs to be learned; Identify the level of skills of the learners; Develop a series of steps to guide learners where they should be; and Provide the appropriate reinforcement. Today, programmed instruction can be applied at virtually every educational level. It is typically best performed in smaller groups, wherein the students can get personalized attention from instructors, if they need further explanation about a particular topic.

Programmed instruction also served as an important compass in the development of the module. The contents of the module are divided into small parts and the learning is in a step by step process, from simple to complex. Integrated in the proposed module is the presence of feedback mechanisms to guide the learner in his or her studying.

To sum it up, it will build its framework upon the principles established by the aforementioned theories. The theories stated in this section will be very helpful in the development of the module. The related theories will keep the module development theoretically and conceptually anchored on strong and time-tested educational theories.



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